Saturday, 7 June 2014

St Mark 13: 1-10

Today's section of St Mark is 13:1-11:

1 Et cum egrederetur de templo, ait illi unus ex discipulis suis: Magister, aspice quales lapides, et quales structuræ. 2 Et respondens Jesus, ait illi: Vides has omnes magnas ædificationes? Non relinquetur lapis super lapidem, qui non destruatur. 3 Et cum sederet in monte Olivarum contra templum, interrogabant eum separatim Petrus, et Jacobus, et Joannes, et Andreas: 4 Dic nobis, quando ista fient? et quod signum erit, quando hæc omnia incipient consummari? 5 Et respondens Jesus cœpit dicere illis: Videte ne quid vos seducat: 6 multi enim venient in nomine meo, dicentes quia ego sum: et multos seducent. 7 Cum audieritis autem bella, et opiniones bellorum, ne timueritis: oportet enim hæc fieri: sed nondum finis. 8 Exsurget enim gens contra gentem, et regnum super regnum, et erunt terræmotus per loca, et fames. Initium dolorum hæc. 9 Videte autem vosmetipsos. Tradent enim vos in consiliis, et in synagogis vapulabitis, et ante præsides et reges stabitis propter me, in testimonium illis. 10 Et in omnes gentes primum oportet prædicari Evangelium. 11 Et cum duxerint vos tradentes, nolite præcogitare quid loquamini: sed quod datum vobis fuerit in illa hora, id loquimini: non enim vos estis loquentes, sed Spiritus Sanctus.

And as he was going out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him: Master, behold what manner of stones and what buildings are here. [2] And Jesus answering, said to him: Seest thou all these great buildings? There shall not be left a stone upon a stone, that shall not be thrown down. [3] And as he sat on the mount of Olivet over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him apart: [4] Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall begin to be fulfilled? [5] And Jesus answering, began to say to them, Take heed lest any man deceive you.
[6] For many shall come in my name, saying, I am he; and they shall deceive many. [7] And when you shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, fear ye not. For such things must needs be, but the end is not yet. [8] For nation shall rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom, and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and famines. These things are the beginning of sorrows. [9] But look to yourselves. For they shall deliver you up to councils, and in the synagogues you shall be beaten, and you shall stand before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony unto them. [10] And unto all nations the gospel must first be preached.[11] And when they shall lead you and deliver you up, be not thoughtful beforehand what you shall speak; but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye. For it is not you that speak, but the Holy Ghost.

Commentary (de Lapide)

Christ foretelleth the destruction of the temple: the persecutions for the gospel: that the gospel must be preached to all nations: that great calamities shall happen to the Jews: and the manner of his coming to judgment: the hour whereof being known to none, every man is to watch and pray, that we be not found unprovided, when he cometh to each one, particularly by death. 

Ver. 6. Saying, 1 am (Vulg.). That is, "I am Christ or Messias," as S. Matthew has (xxiv. 5). 

Ver. ii. Be not thoughtful beforehand what you shall speak. Gr. veopegifjuare, i.e., do not think anxiously beforehand. The Greek and Syriac add, neither do ye meditate, after what manner or arrangement ye shall speak and answer governors and tyrants. But whatsoever shall be given you (i.e., shall be suggested to you by the Holy Spirit) in that hour, that speak ye. The Arabic has, because ye shall be given in that hour what ye shall speak. 


Friday, 6 June 2014

St Mark 12:28-44:

St Mark 12:28-44:

28 Et accessit unus de scribis, qui audierat illos conquirentes, et videns quoniam bene illis responderit, interrogavit eum quod esset primum omnium mandatum. 29 Jesus autem respondit ei: Quia primum omnium mandatum est: Audi Israël, Dominus Deus tuus, Deus unus est: 30 et diliges Dominum Deum tuum ex tota corde tuo, et ex tota anima tua, et ex tota mente tua, et ex tota virtute tua. Hoc est primum mandatum. 31 Secundum autem simile est illi: Diliges proximum tuum tamquam teipsum. Majus horum aliud mandatum non est. 32 Et ait illi scriba: Bene, Magister, in veritate dixisti, quia unus est Deus, et non est alius præter eum. 33 Et ut diligatur ex toto corde, et ex toto intellectu, et ex tota anima, et ex tota fortitudine, et diligere proximum tamquam seipsum, majus est omnibus holocautomatibus, et sacrificiis. 34 Jesus autem videns quod sapienter respondisset, dixit illi: Non es longe a regno Dei. Et nemo jam audebat eum interrogare.35 Et respondens Jesus dicebat, docens in templo: Quomodo dicunt scribæ Christum filium esse David? 36 Ipse enim David dicit in Spiritu Sancto: Dixit Dominus Domino meo: Sede a dextris meis, donec ponam inimicos tuos scabellum pedum tuorum. 37 Ipse ergo David dicit eum Dominum, et unde est filius ejus? Et multa turba eum libenter audivit. 38 Et dicebat eis in doctrina sua: Cavete a scribis, qui volunt in stolis ambulare, et salutari in foro, 39 et in primis cathedris sedere in synagogis, et primos discubitus in cœnis: 40 qui devorant domos viduarum sub obtentu prolixæ orationis: hi accipient prolixius judicium.41 Et sedens Jesus contra gazophylacium, aspiciebat quomodo turba jactaret æs in gazophylacium, et multi divites jactabant multa. 42 Cum venisset autem vidua una pauper, misit duo minuta, quod est quadrans, 43 et convocans discipulos suos, ait illis: Amen dico vobis, quoniam vidua hæc pauper plus omnibus misit, qui miserunt in gazophylacium. 44 Omnes enim ex eo, quod abundabat illis, miserunt: hæc vero de penuria sua omnia quæ habuit misit totum victum suum.

[28] And there came one of the scribes that had heard them reasoning together, and seeing that he had answered them well, asked him which was the first commandment of all. [29] And Jesus answered him: The first commandment of all is, Hear, O Israel: the Lord thy God is one God. [30] And thou shalt love the Lord thy God, with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole mind, and with thy whole strength. This is the first commandment. [31] And the second is like to it: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is no other commandment greater than these. [32] And the scribe said to him: Well, Master, thou hast said in truth, that there is one God, and there is no other besides him. [33] And that he should be loved with the whole heart, and with the whole understanding, and with the whole soul, and with the whole strength; and to love one' s neighbour as one' s self, is a greater thing than all holocausts and sacrifices. [34] And Jesus seeing that he had answered wisely, said to him: Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question. [35] And Jesus answering, said, teaching in the temple: How do the scribes say, that Christ is the son of David?[36] For David himself saith by the Holy Ghost: The Lord said to my Lord, Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool. [37] David therefore himself calleth him Lord, and whence is he then his son? And a great multitude heard him gladly. [38] And he said to them in his doctrine: Beware of the scribes, who love to walk in long robes, and to be saluted in the marketplace, [39] And to sit in the first chairs, in the synagogues, and to have the highest places at suppers: [40] Who devour the houses of widows under the pretence of long prayer: these shall receive greater judgment.[41] And Jesus sitting over against the treasury, beheld how the people cast money into the treasury, and many that were rich cast in much. [42] And there came a certain poor widow, and she cast in two mites, which make a farthing. [43] And calling his disciples together, he saith to them: Amen I say to you, this poor widow hath cast in more than all they who have cast into the treasury. [44] For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want cast in all she had, even her whole living.

Commentary (de Lapide)

Ver. 33. And to love one’s neighbour as oneself is a greater thing than all holocausts and sacrifices. Holocausts were sacrifices in which the whole victim was burnt and sacrificed to God by fire. This is what God says, “I will mercy [prefer] and not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than holocausts” (Hosea vi. 6). This young man tacitly assents to the saying of Christ, and condemns the scribes, who preferred sacrifices, which yielded profit to themselves, to mercy and the love of our neighbour. And this was why they bade children say to their parents, when they were in need, corban, i.e., oblation (see on Matt. xv. 6).

Ver. 34. Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. Thou art not far from the way of salvation, for the love of God and our neighbour is the pathway to heaven. Again it means, thou art not far from My Church, by which, militant here on earth, we go to the Church triumphant in heaven. “Still, as yet thou lackest faith to believe in Me as the Messiah, the Saviour of the world, and to obey My commands, so that thou mayest indeed become a Christian. And if thou wilt be perfect, leave all things and follow Me, as the Apostles have done.” When, then, He says, thou art not far, “He shows,” says Victor of Antioch, “that he was still at some distance, and that he ought to reach forward to that which was before, and seek diligently for the things that were yet wanting unto him.”

Ver. 38. Who love to walk in long robes,—stolis (Vulg.). The stole was an elegant garment, flowing down to the heels. Wherefore the Scribes wore it for the sake of ostentation.

Ver. 40. Who devour, Gr. οί κατεσθίοντες, i.e., who altogether consume and lick up the houses of widows, both by reason of the sumptuous feasts which they ask of them, as well as by the gifts and money which they avariciously extort from them under the pretext of offering prayers for them. “When, therefore,” says Bede, “the hand is stretched out to the poor, it is wont to help prayer; but those men passed whole nights in prayer that they might take from the poor.”

These shall receive greater judgment. A severer sentence of God, and a heavier condemnation shall press upon the Scribes in the day of judgment, because by a pretence of probity they are aiming at wrong-doing; and being clothed in the garments of God, they are fighting on the devil’s side. “Simulated holiness,” says S. Chrysostom, “is a double iniquity.”

Ver. 41. How the people cast money: æs, brass (Vulg.), i.e., all sorts of money, whether brass, silver, or gold. For the first money was made of brass, hence all money was afterwards called brass, even when made of silver or gold.

Into the treasury; gazophylacium (Vulg.). For gaza is a Persian word, meaning riches; and φυλάττειν is to keep. This was a chest into which gifts were cast by the people, and kept for the service of the Temple, and for supporting the priests and the poor. Hence, also, the porch in which the chest was kept was called by the same name. Thus it is said in John viii. 20, “These words spake Jesus in the treasury (gazophylacio), teaching in the Temple.” So Bede.

Ver. 42. A certain poor widow cast in two mites, which make a farthing. Not as if one mite made a farthing, as Euthymius understands, relying on Matt. v. 26. But two mites were equivalent to one farthing, as is here clearly expressed. For a farthing was the fourth part of a little ass; and ten small asses made a denarius. A mite was half a farthing.

Ver. 43. This poor widow hath cast in more than all. For although per se, and other things being equal, the greatest and best alms and oblations is that which is most, yet, per accidens, when other things are not equal, the greater alms is that which is offered with the greater devotion of charity and religion. For God does not so much regard the gift as the disposition of the giver. Again, the greater gift is not that which is of the greater value considered in itself, as that which is the greater and more difficult in respect of the giver. This widow, therefore, in giving a farthing, gave more than all, because she gave all that she had, although it was necessary for her life. And she would have given more if she had had more. For she trusted in God, that He in return would be more liberal to her, and provide for her necessity, according to the saying, “Give God an egg, and receive a sheep.” Others truly gave of their abounding superfluities, as Christ here says. As Titus of Bostra says on Luke xxi. 3, “With such magnanimity and devotion did she offer two mites, that is, all that she had, as if she counted her own life as nothing.” S. Paul gives the a priori reason (2 Cor. viii 12), “If there be a ready mind, it is accepted according to what a man hath, not according to that which he hath not.” As Victor of Antioch says on this passage, “For God does not so much consider the greatness of the gifts, as weigh the greatness and alacrity of the mind.” And Bede, “He weighs not the substance, but the conscience of the offerers.”

For, as S. Thomas says, inasmuch as the widow gave according to her ability, therefore it was the greater affection of charity which was valued in her. S. Ambrose thought the same (lib. 2, Offic. c. 30), “The two mites of that widow surpassed the offerings of the rich, because she gave all she had; but they offered only a small portion of their abundance.” Whence he infers, “The disposition therefore makes the offering poor or valuable, and sets their true price upon things.” 

Thursday, 5 June 2014

St Mark 12:18-27

St Mark 12:18-27:

18 Et venerunt ad eum sadducæi, qui dicunt resurrectionem non esse: et interrogabant eum, dicentes: 19 Magister, Moyses nobis scripsit, ut si cujus frater mortuus fuerit, et dimiserit uxorem, et filios non reliquerit, accipiat frater ejus uxorem ipsius, et resuscitet semen fratri suo. 20 Septem ergo fratres erant: et primus accepit uxorem, et mortuus est non relicto semine. 21 Et secundus accepit eam, et mortuus est: et nec iste reliquit semen. Et tertius similiter. 22 Et acceperunt eam similiter septem: et non reliquerunt semen. Novissima omnium defuncta est et mulier. 23 In resurrectione ergo cum resurrexerint, cujus de his erit uxor? septem enim habuerunt eam uxorem. 24 Et respondens Jesus, ait illis: Nonne ideo erratis, non scientes Scripturas, neque virtutem Dei? 25 Cum enim a mortuis resurrexerint, neque nubent, neque nubentur, sed sunt sicut angeli in cælis. 26 De mortuis autem quod resurgant, non legistis in libro Moysi, super rubum, quomodo dixerit illi Deus, inquiens: Ego sum Deus Abraham, et Deus Isaac, et Deus Jacob? 27 Non est Deus mortuorum, sed vivorum. Vos ergo multum erratis.

[18] And there came to him the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying: [19] Master, Moses wrote unto us, that if any man' s brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed to his brother. [20] Now there were seven brethren; and the first took a wife, and died leaving no issue. [21] And the second took her, and died: and neither did he leave any issue. And the third in like manner. [22] And the seven all took her in like manner; and did not leave issue. Last of all the woman also died. [23] In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise again, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife. [24] And Jesus answering, saith to them: Do ye not therefore err, because you know not the scriptures, nor the power of God? [25] For when they shall rise again from the dead, they shall neither marry, nor be married, but are as the angels in heaven. [26] And as concerning the dead that they rise again, have you not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spoke to him, saying: I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? [27] He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You therefore do greatly err.

Commentary (Catena Aurea)

GLOSS. After that our Lord has prudently escaped the crafty temptation of the Pharisees, it is shows how He also confounds the Sadducees, who tempt Him; wherefore it is Said: Then come to him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection.

THEOPHYL. A certain heretical sect of the Jews called Sadducees denied the resurrection, and said that there was neither angel nor spirit. These then coming to Jesus, craftily proposed to Him a certain tale, in order to show that no resurrection should take place, or had taken place; and therefore there is added, And they asked him, saying, Master.

And in this tale they lay down that seven men had married one woman, in order to make men draw back from belief in the resurrection.

BEDE; And fitly do they frame such a fable in order to prove the madness of those who assert the resurrection of the body. Such a thing however might really have happened at some time or other among them.

PSEUDO-JEROME; But in a mystical sense: what can this woman, leaving no seed of seven brothers, and last of all dying, mean except the Jewish synagogue, deserted by the seven-fold Spirit, which filled those seven patriarchs, who did not leave to her the seed of Abraham, that is, Jesus Christ? For although a Son was born to them, nevertheless He was given to us Gentiles.

This woman was dead to Christ, nor shall she be joined in the resurrection to any patriarch of the seven; for by the number seven is meant the whole company of the faithful. Thus it is said contrariwise by Isaiah, Seven women shall take hold of one man; that is, the seven Churches, which the Lord loves, reproves, and chastises, adore Him with one faith.

Wherefore it goes on: And Jesus answering, said to them, Do you not therefore err, not knowing the Scripture, neither the power of God!

THEOPHYL. As if He had said, you understand not what sort of a resurrection the Scriptures announce; for you believe that there will be a restoration of our bodies, such as they are now, but it shall not be so. Thus then you know not the Scriptures; neither again do you know the power of God; for you consider it as a difficult thing, saying, How can the limbs, which have been scattered, be united together and joined to the soul? But this in respect of the Divine power is as nothing.

There follows: For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven; as if He had said, There will be a certain heavenly and angelic restoration to life, when there shall be no more decay, and we shall remain unchanged; and for this reason marriage shall cease. For marriage now exists on account of our decay, that we may be carried on by succession of our race, and not fail; but then we shall be as the Angels, which need no succession by marriage, and never come to an end.

BEDE; We must here consider that the Latin custom does not answer to the Greek idiom. For properly different words are used for the marriage of men, and that of women; but here we may simply understand that, marry is meant of men, and given in marriage of women.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Thus then they do not understand the Scripture, in that in the resurrection, men shall be as the Angels of God, that is, no man there dies, no one is born, no infant is there, no old man.

THEOPHYL. In another way also they are deceived, not understanding the Scriptures; for if they had understood them, they should also have understood how by the Scriptures the resurrection of the dead may be proved; wherefore He adds, And as touching the dead, that they rise, have you not read in the took of Moses, how in the bush God spoke to him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?

PSEUDO-JEROME; But I say, in the bush, in which is an image of you; for in it the fire was kindled, but it did not consume its thorns; so my words set you on fire, but do not burn off your thorns, which have grown under the curse.

THEOPHYL. But I say, I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. As if He had said, The God of the living, wherefore He adds, He is not the God of the dead, but of the living; for He did not say, I have been, but I am, as if they had been present. But some one perhaps will say, that God spoke this only of the soul of Abraham, not of His body; to which I answer, that Abraham implies both, that is, soul and body, so that He also is the God of the body, and the body lives with God, that is, in God's ordinance.

BEDE; Or else; because after proving that the soul remained after death, (for God could not be God of those who did not exist at all,) the resurrection of the body also might be inferred as a consequence, since it had done good and evil with the soul.

PSEUDO-JEROME; But when He says, The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; by naming God thrice, He implied the Trinity. But when He says, He is not the God of the dead, by naming again the One God, he implies One Substance. But they live who make good the portion, which they had chosen; and they are dead, who have lost what they had made good. You therefore do greatly err.

GLOSS. That is, because they contradicted the Scriptures, and derogated from the power of God.

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

St Mark 12:1-17

St Mark 12:1-17:

1 Et cœpit illis in parabolis loqui: Vineam pastinavit homo, et circumdedit sepem, et fodit lacum, et ædificavit turrim, et locavit eam agricolis, et peregre profectus est. 2 Et misit ad agricolas in tempore servum ut ab agricolis acciperet de fructu vineæ. 3 Qui apprehensum eum ceciderunt, et dimiserunt vacuum. 4 Et iterum misit ad illos alium servum: et illum in capite vulneraverunt, et contumeliis affecerunt. 5 Et rursum alium misit, et illum occiderunt: et plures alios: quosdam cædentes, alios vero occidentes. 6 Adhuc ergo unum habens filium carissimum, et illum misit ad eos novissimum, dicens: Quia reverebuntur filium meum. 7 Coloni autem dixerunt ad invicem: Hic est hæres: venite, occidamus eum: et nostra erit hæreditas. 8 Et apprehendentes eum, occiderunt: et ejecerunt extra vineam. 9 Quid ergo faciet dominus vineæ? Veniet, et perdet colonos, et dabit vineam aliis. 10 Nec scripturam hanc legistis: Lapidem quem reprobaverunt ædificantes, hic factus est in caput anguli: 11 a Domino factum est istud, et est mirabile in oculis nostris?12 Et quærebant eum tenere: et timuerunt turbam: cognoverunt enim quoniam ad eos parabolam hanc dixerit. Et relicto eo abierunt.13 Et mittunt ad eum quosdam ex pharisæis, et herodianis, ut eum caperent in verbo. 14 Qui venientes dicunt ei: Magister, scimus quia verax es, et non curas quemquam: nec enim vides in faciem hominum, sed in veritate viam Dei doces. Licet dari tributum Cæsari, an non dabimus? 15 Qui sciens versutiam illorum, ait illos: Quid me tentatis? afferte mihi denarium ut videam. 16 At illi attulerunt ei. Et ait illis: Cujus est imago hæc, et inscriptio? Dicunt ei: Cæsaris. 17 Respondens autem Jesus dixit illis: Reddite igitur quæ sunt Cæsaris, Cæsari: et quæ sunt Dei, Deo. Et mirabantur super eo.

1] And he began to speak to them in parables: A certain man planted a vineyard and made a hedge about it, and dug a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it to husbandmen; and went into a far country. [2] And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant to receive of the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. [3] Who having laid hands on him, beat him, and sent him away empty. [4] And again he sent to them another servant; and him they wounded in the head, and used him reproachfully. [5] And again he sent another, and him they killed: and many others, of whom some they beat, and others they killed.[6] Therefore having yet one son, most dear to him; he also sent him unto them last of all, saying: They will reverence my son. [7] But the husbandmen said one to another: This is the heir; come let us kill him; and the inheritance shall be ours. [8] And laying hold on him, they killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. [9] What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy those husbandmen; and will give the vineyard to others. [10] And have you not read this scripture, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is made the head of the corner:[11] By the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes. [12] And they sought to lay hands on him, but they feared the people. For they knew that he spoke this parable to them. And leaving him, they went their way. [13] And they sent to him some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians; that they should catch him in his words. [14] Who coming, say to him: Master, we know that thou art a true speaker, and carest not for any man; for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth. Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar; or shall we not give it? [15] Who knowing their wiliness, saith to them: Why tempt you me? bring me a penny that I may see it. [16] And they brought it him. And he saith to them: Whose is this image and inscription? They say to him, Caesar' s. [17] And Jesus answering, said to them: Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar' s, and to God the things that are God' s. And they marvelled at him.

Commentary 

by de Lapide:

Ver. 1. Planted a vineyard. Gr. ε̉φύτευσεν, Vulg. pastinavit. The verb pastinare is especially used of vines. It means to dig the soil of the vineyard, and prepare it for planting vines, So the word repastinare means to dig up vines when they are sterile.

And dug a lake (Vulg.), a receptacle into which the must pressed from the grapes might flow. The Gr. is ύπολήνιον, i.e., beneath the winepress. For ληνός means winepress. Hence the Arabic translates, and dug a winepress in it. S. Matthew (xxi. 33) uses the same expression. For torcular, or winepress, means not only the actual press itself, but the vat or receptacle beneath the press in which the grape juice was received. This last was said to be dug, or, as in Isa. v. 1, to be cut out.

Catena Aurea:

GLOSS. After the Lord had closed the mouths of His tempters by a wise question, He next shows their wickedness in a parable; wherefore it is said: And he began to speak to them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard.

PSEUDO-JEROME; God the Father is called a man by a human conception. The vineyard is the house of Israel; the hedge is the guardianship of Angels; the winefat is the law, the tower is the temple, and the husbandmen, the priests.

BEDE; Or else, the hedge is the wall of the city, the winefat is the altar, or those winefats, by which the psalms receive their name.

THEOPHYL. Or, the hedge is the law, which prohibited their mingling with strangers. There follows, And went into afar country.

BEDE; Not by any change of place, but He seemed to go away from the vineyard, that He might leave the husbandmen to act on their own freewill. It goes on: And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard.

PSEUDO-JEROME; The servants who were sent were the prophets, the fruit of the vineyard is obedience; some of the prophets were beaten, others wounded, others slain. Wherefore it goes on, And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.

BEDE; By the servant who was first sent, we must understand Moses, but they beat him, and sent him away empty, because they angered Moses in the tents.

There follows, And again he sent to them another servant, and they wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled. This other servant means David and the other Psalmists, but they wounded Him in time head and shamefully handled him, because they despised the songs of the Psalmists, and rejected David himself, saying, What portion have we in David?

It goes on, And he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some. By the third servant and his companions, understand the band of the prophets. But which of the prophets did they not persecute? In these three kinds of servants, as the Lord Himself elsewhere pronounces, may be included in a figure all the doctors under the law, when He says, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Me.

THEOPHYL. Or else, By the first servant, understand the prophets who lived about the time of Elias, for Zedekiah the false prophet beat Micaiah; and by the second servant whom they wounded in the head, that is, evil entreated, We may understand the prophets who lived about the time of Hosea and Isaiah; but by the third servant understand the prophets who flourished about the time of Daniel and Ezekiel. It goes on, Having yet therefore one son, his well-beloved, he sent him also last to them, saying, Perchance they will reverence my son.

PSEUDO-JEROME; The well-beloved son and the last is the Only-begotten; and in that He Says, They will reverence my son, He speaks in irony.

BEDE; Or else, this is not said in ignorance, but God is said to doubt, that freedom of will may be left to man.

THEOPHYL. Or else, He said this not as though He were ignorant of what was to happen, but to show what it was right and fitting that they should do. But those husbandmen said amongst themselves, This is the heir, come, let us kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.

BEDE; The Lord proves most clearly that the chiefs of the Jews did not crucify the Son of God through ignorance, but through envy; for they understood that this was He to whom it was said, I will give you the heathen for your inheritance. But these evil husbandmen strove to seize upon it by slaying Him, when the Jews crucifying Him tried to extinguish the faith which is by Him, and rather to bring forward their own righteousness which is by the Law, and to thrust it on the nations, and to imbue them with it.

There follows: And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.

THEOPHYL. That is, without Jerusalem, for the Lord was crucified out of the city.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Or else, they cast Him out of the vineyard, that is, out of the people, saying, You are a Samaritan, and have a devil. Or, as far as in them lay, they cast Him out of their own borders, and gave Him up to the Gentiles that they might receive Him.

There follows, What then will the Lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy those husbandmen, and give the vineyard to other.

AUG. Matthew indeed subjoins that they answered and said, He will miserably destroy those wicked men , which Mark here says was not their answer, but that the Lord after putting the question, as it were answered Himself. But we may easily understand either that their answer was, subjoined without the insertion of, they answered, or they said, which at the same time was implied; or else, that their answer, being the truth, was attributed to the Lord, since He also Himself gave this answer concerning them, being the Truth.

THEOPHYL. The Lord of the vineyard then is the Father of the Son who was slain, and the Son Himself is He who was slain, who will destroy those husbandmen, by giving them up to the Romans, and who will give the people to other husbandmen, that is, to the Apostles. Read the Acts of the Apostles, and you will find three thousand, and five thousand on a sudden believing and bearing fruit to God.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Or else, the vineyard is given to others, that is, to those who come from the east, and from the west, and from the south, and from the north, and who sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven.

BEDE; But that this was done by Divine interposition he affirms, by immediately afterwards adding, And have you not read this Scripture, The stone which the builders refused is become the head-stone in the corner? As if he had said, how is this prophecy to be fulfilled, save in that Christ, being rejected and slain by you, is to be preached to the Gentiles, who will believe on Him? Thus then as a corner stone, He will found the two people on Him self, and of the two people will build for Himself a city of the faithful, one temple. For the masters of the synagogue, whom He had just called husbandmen, He now calls builders, because the same persons, who seemed to cultivate His people, that they might bear the fruits of life, like a vineyard, were also commanded to construct and adorn this people, to be, as it were, a house worthy to have God for its inhabitant.

THEOPHYL. The stone then which the builders refused, the same has become the head-stone of the corner, that is, of the Church. For the Church is, as it were, the corner, joining together Jews and Gentiles; and this corner has been made by the Lord, and is wonderful in our eyes, that is, in the eyes of the faithful; for miracles meet with detraction from the faithless. The Church indeed is wonderful, as it were resting on wonders, for the Lord worked with the Apostles, and confirmed the word with signs. And this is what is meant, when it is said, This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes.

PSEUDO-JEROME; This rejected stone, which is borne by that corner where the lamb and the bread met in the supper, ending the Old and beginning the New Testament, does things marvelous in our eyes as the topaz.

BEDE; But the Chief Priests showed that those things which the Lord had spoken were true; which is proved from what follows: And they sought to lay hold on him; for He Himself is the heir, whose unjust death He said was to be revenged by the Father. Again, in a moral sense, each of the faithful, when the Sacrament of Baptism is entrusted to him, receives on hire a vineyard, which he is to cultivate. But the servant sent to him is evil entreated, beaten, and cast out, when the word is heard by him and despised, or, what is worse, even blasphemed; further, he kills, as far as in him lies, the heir, who has trampled under foot time Son of God.

The evil husbandman is destroyed, and the vineyard given to another, when the humble shall be enriched with that gift of grace, which the proud man has scorned. And it happens daily in the Church, that the Chief Priests wishing to lay hands on Jesus, are held back by the multitude, when some one, who is a brother only in name, either blushes or fears to attack the unity of the faith of the Church, and of its peace, though he loves it not, on account of the number of good brethren who dwell together within it.

BEDE; The Chief Priests though they sought to take Him, feared the multitude, and therefore they endeavored to effect what they could not do of themselves, by means of earthly powers, that they might themselves appear to be guiltless of His death; and therefore it is said, And they send to him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words. 

THEOPHYL. We have said elsewhere of the Herodians, that they were a certain new heresy who said that Herod was the Christ, because the succession of the kingdom of Judah had failed. Others however say that the herodians, were the soldiers of Herod, whom the Pharisees brought as witnesses of the words of Christ, that they might take Him, and lead Him away. But observe how in their wickedness they wished to deceive Christ by flattery; for it goes on: Master, we know that you are true. 

PSEUDO-JEROME For they questioned Him with honeyed words, and they surrounded Him as bees, who carry honey in the in mouth but a sting in their tail. 

BEDE; But this bland and crafty question was intended to induce Him in His answer rather to fear God than Caesar, and to say that tribute should not he paid, so that the Herodians immediately on hearing it might hold Him to be an author of sedition against the Romans, and therefore they add, And care for no man: for you regard not the person of any. 

THEOPHYL. So that you will not honor Caesar, that is, against the truth; therefore they add, But teach the way of God in truth. Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not? Shall we give, or shall we not give? For their whole plot was one which had a precipice on both sides, so that if He said that it was lawful to give tribute to Caesar, they might provoke the people against Him, as though He wished to reduce the nation itself to slavery; but if He said, that it was not lawful, they might accuse Him, as though He was stirring up the people against Caesar; but the Fountain of wisdom escaped their snares. Wherefore there follows: But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, Why tempt you me? briny me a penny, that I may see it. And they brought it. 

BEDE; A denarius was a piece of money, accounted equal to ten smaller coins, and bearing the image of Caesar; wherefore there follows: And he said to them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said to him, Caesar's. 

Let those who think that our Savior asked the question through ignorance and not by an economy, learn from this that He might have known whose image it was; but He puts the question, in order to return them a fitting answer; wherefore there follows: And Jesus answering said to them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 

THEOPHYL. As if He had said, Give what bears an image to him whose image it bears, that is, the penny to Caesar; for we can both pay Caesar his tribute, and offer to God what is His own. 

BEDE; That is, tithes, first-fruits, oblations, and victims. In the same way as He gave tribute both for Himself and Peter, He also gave to God the things that are God's, doing the will of His Father. 

PSEUDO-JEROME; Render to Caesar the money bearing his image, which is collected for him, and render yourselves willingly up to God, for the light of your countenance, O Lord, and not of Caesar's, is stamped upon us. 

THEOPHYL. The inevitable wants of our bodies is as Caesar to each of us; the Lord therefore orders that there should be given to the body its own, that is, food and raiment, and to God the things that are God's. It goes on: And they marveled at him. They who ought to have believed, wondered at such great wisdom, because they had found no place for their craftiness.

Tuesday, 3 June 2014

St Mark 11:19-33

St Mark 11:19-33:

19 Et cum vespera facta esset, egrediebatur de civitate. 20 Et cum mane transirent, viderunt ficum aridam factam a radicibus. 21 Et recordatus Petrus, dixit ei: Rabbi, ecce ficus, cui maledixisti, aruit. 22 Et respondens Jesus ait illis: Habete fidem Dei. 23 Amen dico vobis, quia quicumque dixerit huic monti: Tollere, et mittere in mare, et non hæsitaverit in corde suo, sed crediderit, quia quodcumque dixerit fiat, fiet ei. 24 Propterea dico vobis, omnia quæcumque orantes petitis, credite quia accipietis, et evenient vobis. 25 Et cum stabitis ad orandum, dimittite si quis habetis adversus aliquem: ut et Pater vester, qui in cælis est, dimittat vobis peccata vestra. 26 Quod si vos non dimiseritis: nec Pater vester, qui in cælis est, dimittet vobis peccata vestra.27 Et veniunt rursus Jerosolymam. Et cum ambularet in templo, accedunt ad eum summi sacerdotes, et scribæ, et seniores: 28 et dicunt ei: In qua potestate hæc facis? et quis dedit tibi hanc potestatem ut ista facias? 29 Jesus autem respondens, ait illis: Interrogabo vos et ego unum verbum, et respondete mihi: et dicam vobis in qua potestate hæc faciam. 30 Baptismus Joannis, de cælo erat, an ex hominibus? Respondete mihi. 31 At illi cogitabant secum, dicentes: Si dixerimus: De cælo, dicet: Quare ergo non credidistis ei? 32 Si dixerimus: Ex hominibus, timemus populum: omnes enim habebant Joannem quia vere propheta esset. 33 Et respondentes dicunt Jesu: Nescimus. Et respondens Jesus ait illis: Neque ego dico vobis in qua potestate hæc faciam.

[19] And when evening was come, he went forth out of the city. [20] And when they passed by in the morning they saw the fig tree dried up from the roots. [21] And Peter remembering, said to him: Rabbi, behold the fig tree, which thou didst curse, is withered away. [22] And Jesus answering, saith to them: Have the faith of God. [23] Amen I say to you, that whosoever shall say to this mountain, Be thou removed and be cast into the sea, and shall not stagger in his heart, but believe, that whatsoever he saith shall be done; it shall be done unto him. [24] Therefore I say unto you, all things, whatsoever you ask when ye pray, believe that you shall receive; and they shall come unto you. [25] And when you shall stand to pray, forgive, if you have aught against any man; that your Father also, who is in heaven, may forgive you your sins.[26] But if you will not forgive, neither will your Father that is in heaven, forgive you your sins. [27] And they come again to Jerusalem. And when he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests and the scribes and the ancients, [28] And they say to him: By what authority dost thou these things? and who hath given thee this authority that thou shouldst do these things? [29] And Jesus answering, said to them: I will also ask you one word, and answer you me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. [30] The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men? Answer me. [31] But they thought with themselves, saying: If we say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did you not believe him? [32] If we say, From men, we fear the people. For all men counted John that he was a prophet indeed. [33] And they answering, say to Jesus: We know not. And Jesus answering, saith to them: Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things.

Commentary

De LapideVer. 22. Have faith, i.e., full and perfect faith.

Catena Aurea on the fig-tree:

PSEUDO-JEROME; The Lord, leaving darkness behind Him in the hearts of the Jews, went out, as the sun, from that city to another which is well-disposed and obedient. And this is what is meant, when it is said, And when even was come, he went out of the city.

But the sun sets in one place, rises in another, for the light, taken from the Scribes, shines in the Apostles; wherefore He returns into the city; on which account there is added, And in the morning, as they passed by, (that is, going into the city,) they saw the fig tree dried up from the root.

THEOPHYL. The greatness of the miracle appears in the drying up so juicy and green a tree. But though Matthew says that the fig tree was at once dried up, and that the disciples on seeing it wondered, there is no reason for perplexity, though Mark now says, that the disciples saw the fig tree dried up on the morrow; for what Matthew says must be understood to mean that they did not see it at once, but on the next day.

AUG. The meaning is not that it dried up at the time, when they saw it, but immediately after the word of the Lord; for they saw it, not beginning to dry up, but completely dried up; and they thus understood that it had withered immediately after our Lord spoke.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Now the fig tree withered from the roots is the synagogue withered from Cain, and the rest, from whom all the blood from Abel up to Zechariah is required.

BEDE; Further, the fig tree was dried up from the roots to show that the nation was impious not only for a time and in part, and was to be smitten for ever, not merely to be afflicted by the attacks of nations from without and then to be freed, as had often been done; or else it was dried up from the roots, to show that it was stripped not only of the external favor of man, but altogether of the favor of heaven within it; for it lost both its life in heaven, and its country on earth.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Peter perceives the dry root, which is cut off, and has been replaced by the beautiful and fruitful olive, called by the Lord; wherefore it goes on: And Peter calling to remembrance said to him, Master, behold, the fig tree which you cursed is withered away.

CHRYS. The wonder of the disciples was the consequence of imperfect faith, for this was no great thing for God to do; since then they did not clearly know His power, their ignorance made them break out into wonder; and therefore it is added, And Jesus answering said to them, Have faith in God.

For verily I say it to you, That whosoever shall say to this mountain , &c. That is; You shall not only be able to dry up a tree, but also to change a mountain by your command and order.

THEOPHYL. Consider the Divine mercy, how it confers on us, if we approach Him in faith, the power of miracles, which He Himself possesses by nature, so that we should be able even to change mountains.

BEDE; The Gentiles, who have attacked the Church, are in the habit of objecting to us, that we have never had full faith in God, for we have never been able to change mountains. It could, however, be done, if necessity called for it, as once we read that it was done by the prayers of the blessed Father Gregory of Neocaesarea, Bishop of Pontus, by which a mountain left as much space of ground for the inhabitants of a city as they wanted.

CHRYS. Or else, as He did not dry up the fig tree for its own sake, but for a sign that Jerusalem should come to destruction, in order to show His power, in time same way we must also understand the promise concerning the mountain, though a removal of this sort is not impossible with God.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Christ then who is the mountain, which grew from the stone, cut out without hands, is taken up and cast into the sea, when the Apostles with justice say, Let us turn ourselves to other nations, Since you judged yourselves unworthy of hearing the word of God.

BEDE; Or else, because the devil is often on account of his pride called by the name of a mountain, this mountain, at the command of those who are strong in the faith, is taken up from the earth and cast into the sea, whenever, at the preaching of the word of God by the holy doctors, the unclean spirit is expelled from the hearts of those who are fore-ordained to life, and is allowed to exert the tyranny of his power over the troubled and embittered souls of the faithless. At which time, he rages the more fiercely, the more he grieves at being turned away from hurting the faithful. It goes On: Therefore I say run to you, What things soever you desire, when you pray, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them.

THEOPHYL. For whosoever sincerely believes evidently lifts up his heart to God, and is joined to Him, and his burning heart feels sure that he has received what he asked for, which he who has experienced will understand; and those persons appear to me to experience this, who attend to the measure and the manner of their prayers. For this reason the Lord says, You shall receive whatsoever you ask in faith; for he who believes that be is altogether in the hands of God, and interceding with tears, feels that he as it were has hold of the feet of the Lord in prayer, he shall receive what he has rightly asked for.

Again, would you in another way receive what you ask for? Forgive your brother, if he has in any way sinned against you; this is also what is added: And when you stand praying, forgive, if you have ought against any: that your Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Mark has, as He is wont, expressed seven verses of the Lord's prayer in one prayer. But what can he, whose sins are all forgiven, require more, save that he may persevere in what has been granted to him.

BEDE; But we must observe that there is a difference in those who pray; he who has perfect faith, which works by love, can by his prayer or even his command remove spiritual mountains, as Paul did with Elymas the sorcerer. But let those who are unable to mount up to such a height of perfection pray that their sins should be forgiven them, and they shall obtain what they pray for, provided that they themselves first forgive those who have sinned against them. If however they disdain to do this, not only shall they be unable to perform miracles by their prayers, but they shall not even be able to obtain pardon for their sins, which is implied in what follows; But if you do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses.

Monday, 2 June 2014

St Mark 11:1-18

St Mark 11:1-18:

1 Et cum appropinquarent Jerosolymæ et Bethaniæ ad montem Olivarum, mittit duos ex discipulis suis, 2 et ait illis: Ite in castellum, quod contra vos est, et statim introëuntes illuc, invenietis pullum ligatum, super quem nemo adhuc hominum sedit: solvite illum, et adducite. 3 Et si quis vobis dixerit: Quid facitis? dicite, quia Domino necessarius est: et continuo illum dimittet huc. 4 Et abeuntes invenerunt pullum ligatum ante januam foris in bivio: et solvunt eum. 5 Et quidam de illic stantibus dicebant illis: Quid facitis solventes pullum? 6 Qui dixerunt eis sicut præceperat illis Jesus, et dimiserunt eis. 7 Et duxerunt pullum ad Jesum: et imponunt illi vestimenta sua, et sedit super eum. 8 Multi autem vestimenta sua straverunt in via: alii autem frondes cædebant de arboribus, et sternebant in via. 9 Et qui præibant, et qui sequebantur, clamabant, dicentes: Hosanna: benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini: 10 benedictum quod venit regnum patris nostri David: hosanna in excelsis. 11 Et introivit Jerosolymam in templum: et circumspectis omnibus, cum jam vespera esset hora, exiit in Bethaniam cum duodecim.12 Et alia die cum exirent a Bethania, esuriit. 13 Cumque vidisset a longe ficum habentem folia, venit si quid forte inveniret in ea: et cum venisset ad eam, nihil invenit præter folia: non enim erat tempus ficorum. 14 Et respondens dixit ei: Jam non amplius in æternum ex te fructum quisquam manducet. Et audiebant discipuli ejus. 15 Et veniunt in Jerosolymam. Et cum introisset in templum, cœpit ejicere vendentes et ementes in templo: et mensas numulariorum, et cathedras vendentium columbas evertit:16 et non sinebat ut quisquam transferret vas per templum: 17 et docebat, dicens eis: Nonne scriptum est: Quia domus mea, domus orationis vocabitur omnibus gentibus? vos autem fecistis eam speluncam latronum. 18 Quo audito principes sacerdotum et scribæ, quærebant quomodo eum perderent: timebant enim eum, quoniam universa turba admirabatur super doctrina ejus.

1] And when they were drawing near to Jerusalem and to Bethania at the mount of Olives, he sendeth two of his disciples, [2] And saith to them: Go into the village that is over against you, and immediately at your coming in thither, you shall find a colt tied, upon which no man yet hath sat: loose him, and bring him. [3] And if any man shall say to you, What are you doing? say ye that the Lord hath need of him: and immediately he will let him come hither. [4] And going their way, they found the colt tied before the gate without, in the meeting of two ways: and they loose him. [5] And some of them that stood there, said to them: What do you loosing the colt?[6] Who said to them as Jesus had commanded them; and they let him go with them. [7] And they brought the colt to Jesus; and they lay their garments on him, and he sat upon him. [8] And many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down boughs from the trees, and strewed them in the way. [9] And they that went before and they that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. [10] Blessed be the kingdom of our father David that cometh: Hosanna in the highest.[11] And he entered into Jerusalem, into the temple: and having viewed all things round about, when now the eventide was come, he went out to Bethania with the twelve. [12] And the next day when they came out from Bethania, he was hungry. [13] And when he had seen afar off a fig tree having leaves, he came if perhaps he might find any thing on it. And when he was come to it, he found nothing but leaves. For it was not the time for figs. [14] And answering he said to it: May no man hereafter eat fruit of thee any more for ever. And his disciples heard it. [15] And they came to Jerusalem. And when he was entered into the temple, he began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the chairs of them that sold doves.16] And he suffered not that any man should carry a vessel through the temple; [17] And he taught, saying to them: Is it not written, My house shall be called the house of prayer to all nations? But you have made it a den of thieves. [18] Which when the chief priests and the scribes had heard, they sought how they might destroy him. For they feared him, because the whole multitude was in admiration at his doctrine.

Commentary by de Lapide

Ver. 10. Blessed be the kingdom of our father David that cometh. It means, blessed by the benediction and goodness of God, i.e., “let it be happy, propitious, flourishing, firm, and abounding in all good things, this kingdom of our father David, which is the kingdom of Israel—that kingdom which was most ample and flourishing under David and Solomon his son, and which fell to pieces at the Babylonian captivity, and subsequently. Now does that kingdom come. It returns, and is restored by this our Messiah, the Son of David, who shall restore it to its pristine glory and beauty, yea, who shall make it far more strong and flourishing.”

Ver. 16. And He suffered not that any man should carry a vessel through the temple. Vessel, utensil, instrument, or furniture, for profane uses, such as basket, pot, ewer, or burden. Through the temple, i.e., through the outermost court of the temple, which was the court of the Gentiles, where the Gentiles might tarry and pray. For to those who wished to pass from the sheep-market, called Bethesda, or by corruption Bethsaida, to the upper city, or Solomon’s palace, the nearest way was through this porch or court of Solomon’s. For otherwise they would have to traverse the whole exterior boundary of this court. It was not surprising, therefore, that servants and children, who were carrying any burden, should take the nearer way through this court. But Christ forbade their doing so, both by His word and the gestures which He made with His hand, and compelled them to go back. What, then, would He have done with respect to the Holy Place itself? What with respect to our churches? (See Vilalpandus, tom. 2, in Ezek. l. 3, c. 9.)

Sunday, 1 June 2014

Sunday after the Ascension: St John 15:26, 27; 16:1-4

This Sunday's Gospel is St John 15:26-16:4:

26 Cum autem venerit Paraclitus, quem ego mittam vobis a Patre, Spiritum veritatis, qui a Patre procedit, ille testimonium perhibebit de me; 27 et vos testimonium perhibebitis, quia ab initio mecum estis.1 Hæc locutus sum vobis, ut non scandalizemini. 2 Absque synagogis facient vos: sed venit hora, ut omnis qui interficit vos arbitretur obsequium se præstare Deo. 3 Et hæc facient vobis, quia non noverunt Patrem, neque me. 4 Sed hæc locutus sum vobis, ut cum venerit hora eorum, reminiscamini quia ego dixi vobis. 

26] But when the Paraclete cometh, whom I will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceedeth from the Father, he shall give testimony of me. [27] And you shall give testimony, because you are with me from the beginning.1] These things have I spoken to you, that you may not be scandalized. [2] They will put you out of the synagogues: yea, the hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you, will think that he doth a service to God. [3] And these things will they do to you; because they have not known the Father, nor me. [4] But these things I have told you, that when the hour shall come, you may remember that I told you of them.

Matins Readings (from St Augustine):

Reading 9: The Lord Jesus, in that discourse which He addressed to His disciples after the Last Supper, when He was on the very eve of the Passion, when He was, as it were, about to go away and leave them as touching His bodily Presence, albeit as touching His spiritual Presence He is with us alway even unto the end of the world, Matth. xxviii. 20, in that discourse He exhorted them to bear patiently the persecution of wicked men, of whom He speaketh as " the world " out of the which world, nevertheless, He saith that He hath chosen even His disciples themselves, xv. 19, that they might know that it was by the grace of God that they were what they were, 1 Cor. xv. 10, whereas it was by their own sins that they had been what they had been.

Reading 10: If they have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you." Here He clearly pointeth to the Jews, the persecutors both of Himself and of His disciples, so that we see that they which persecute His holy ones are as much citizens of the world of damnation as they which persecuted Himself. He saith " They know not Him That sent Me," 21, and yet again, 24, " They have hated both Me and My Father," xv. 24, that is to say, both the Sender and the Sent, the meaning of which words we have already treated in other discourses and with that He cometh to the words " That the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law They hated Me without a cause."

Reading 11: Then saith the Lord, as though in continuation "But when the Comforter is come, Whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, Which proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me. And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with Me from the beginning." 

Reading 12: What connection hath this with the words: "Now have they both seen and hated both Me and My Father but that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law They hated Me without a cause.” Is it that when the Comforter is come, even the Spirit of truth, He will confound by irrefragable testimony them who have both seen and hated both God the Son and God the Father? Yea, indeed, some there were who had seen and still hated, whom the testimony of the Comforter converted to the faith which worketh by love.